Karnataka is a state in the south western locale of India. It was framed on 1 November 1956, with the entry of the States Reorganization
Act. Initially known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state relates to the Carnatic district. The capital
what’s more, biggest city is Bangalore (Bengaluru).
Karnataka is circumscribed by the Arabian Sea toward the west, Goa toward the northwest, Maharashtra toward the north, Telangana toward the upper east, Andhra
Pradesh toward the east, Tamil Nadu toward the southeast, and Kerala toward the south. The state covers a zone of 191,976 square kilometers (74,122
sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the aggregate land territory of India. It is the seventh biggest Indian state by zone. With 61,130,704 occupants at
the 2011 statistics, Karnataka is the eighth biggest state by populace, containing 30 regions. Kannada, one of the traditional dialects of
India, is the most generally talked and official dialect of the state close by Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and
Beary. Karnataka likewise has the main 3 normally Sanskrit-talking regions in India.
The two primary waterway frameworks of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha, and
Tungabhadra, in the north, and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south.
The greater part of these streams stream out of Karnataka eastbound, achieving the ocean at the Bay of Bengal.
In spite of the fact that few historical backgrounds have been proposed for the name Karnataka, the for the most part acknowledged one is that Karnataka is gotten from the
Kannada words karu and nādu, signifying “hoisted arrive”. Karu nadu may likewise be perused as karu, signifying “dark”, and nadu, signifying “area”,
as a kind of perspective to the dark cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme area of the state. The British utilized the word Carnatic, now and again
Karnatak, to depict the two sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.
The economy of Karnataka is the fifth-biggest state economy in India with ₹14.08 lakh crore (US$200 billion) in total national output and a
per capita GDP of ₹174,000 (US$2,400). With a vestige that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to probably the most
great realms of old and medieval India. The rationalists and melodic versifiers disparaged by these domains propelled socio-religious
furthermore, abstract developments which have persevered to the present day. Karnataka has contributed altogether to the two types of Indian established
music, the Carnatic and Hindustani customs.
Fundamental articles: History of Karnataka, Political history of medieval Karnataka, and Etymology of Karnataka
Photograph of dark colored cone-topped sanctuary ruins
Mallikarjuna sanctuary and Kashi Vishwanatha sanctuary at Pattadakal, assembled progressively by the rulers of the Chalukya Empire and Rashtrakuta
Realm is an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Karnataka’s pre-history returns to a paleolithic hand-hatchet culture prove by revelations of, in addition to other things, hand tomahawks and
blades in the district. Proof of neolithic and megalithic societies have likewise been found in the state. Gold found in Harappa was
observed to be foreign from mines in Karnataka, provoking researchers to guess about contacts between antiquated Karnataka and the Indus
Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE.
Preceding the third century BCE, the vast majority of Karnataka shaped piece of the Nanda Empire before going under the Mauryan domain of Emperor
Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule pursued, enabling them to control extensive territories of Karnataka. The decrease of Satavahana control drove
to the ascent of the most punctual local kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, denoting the district’s rise as an autonomous
political element. The Kadamba Dynasty, established by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi; the Western Ganga Dynasty was framed with
Talakad as its capital.
Sala battling the Lion, the insignia of Hoysala Empire
Darker stone statue of grinning divinity sitting with folded legs under curve
Statue of Ugranarasimha at Hampi, situated inside the vestiges of Vijayanagara, the previous capital of the Vijayanagara Empire
These were likewise the main kingdoms to utilize Kannada in organization, as prove by the Halmidi engraving and a fifth-century copper coin
found at Banavasi. These lines were trailed by magnificent Kannada domains, for example, the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta
Domain of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which controlled over huge parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is currently
Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas disparaged a special style of design and Kannada writing which turned into an antecedent to the
Hoysala craft of the twelfth century. Parts of cutting edge Southern Karnataka (Gangavadi) were involved by the Chola Empire at the turn of the
eleventh century. The Cholas and the Hoysalas battled about the district in the mid twelfth century before it inevitably went under Hoysala rule.
At the turn of the principal thousand years, the Hoysalas picked up power in the locale. Writing prospered amid this time, which prompted the rise
of particular Kannada scholarly meters, and the development of sanctuaries and figures clinging to the Vesara style of architecture.The
extension of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of present day Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its standard. In the mid fourteenth century,
Harihara and Bukka Raya set up the Vijayanagara realm with its capital, Hosapattana (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the
Tungabhadra River in the cutting edge Bellary area. The domain ascended as a rampart against Muslim advances into South India, which it
totally controlled for more than two centuries.
In 1565, Karnataka and whatever remains of South India encountered a noteworthy geopolitical move when the Vijayanagara realm tumbled to a confederation of
Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota. The Bijapur Sultanate, which had ascended after the downfall of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon
took control of the Deccan; it was crushed by the Moghuls in the late seventeenth century. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers empowered Urdu and
Persian writing and Indo-Saracenic design, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high purposes of this style.During the sixteenth century,
Konkani Hindus moved to Karnataka, for the most part from Salcette, Goa, while amid the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics
moved to North Canara and South Canara, particularly from Bardes, Goa, because of nourishment deficiencies, plagues and substantial tax assessment
forced by the Portuguese.
1792 Portrait of Tipu Sultan, kept at the British Library
In the period that pursued, parts of northern Karnataka were governed by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire, the British, and other
powers. In the south, the Mysore Kingdom, a previous vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, was quickly independent. With the demise of
Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, Haidar Ali, the president of the Mysore armed force, picked up control of the district. After his demise, the kingdom
was acquired by his child Tipu Sultan. To contain European extension in South India, Haidar Ali and later Tipu Sultan battled four noteworthy
Somewhat English Mysore Wars, the remainder of which brought about Tippu Sultan’s passing and the joining of Mysore into the British Raj in 1799. The
Kingdom of Mysore was reestablished to the Wodeyars and Mysore remained a royal state under the British Raj.
Boss Minister Dr. Devaraj Urs declaring the new name of the Mysore state as ‘Karnataka’
As the “principle of slip by” offered approach to contradiction and opposition from regal states the nation over, Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna
furthermore, others led uprisings in Karnataka in 1830, about three decades previously the Indian Rebellion of 1857. In any case, Kitturu was
assumed control by the British East India Company even before the teaching was authoritatively enunciated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848. Different uprisings
pursued, for example, the ones at Supa, Bagalkot, Shorapur, Nargund and Dandeli. These uprisings — which corresponded with the Indian Rebellion
of 1857 – were driven by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By the late nineteenth
century, the freedom development had picked up energy; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata Raya, S. Nijalingappa, Kengal
Hanumanthaiah, Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the battle into the mid twentieth century.
After India’s autonomy, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, enabled his kingdom’s promotion to India. In 1950, Mysore progressed toward becoming
an Indian condition of a similar name; the previous Maharaja filled in as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing
request of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu-and Kannada-talking areas from the connecting conditions of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay
were consolidated into the Mysore state, under the States Reorganization Act of 1956. The therefore extended state was renamed Karnataka,
after seventeen years, in 1973. In the mid 1900s through the post-freedom period, mechanical visionaries, for example, Sir Mokshagundam
Visvesvarayya, conceived in Muddenahalli, Chikballapur area, assumed an essential job in the advancement of Karnataka’s solid assembling
also, modern base.
Primary articles: Geography of Karnataka, Rainfall in Karnataka, and Beaches in Karnataka
Wide photograph of huge cascade in fog
Run Falls, framed by Sharavathi River, are the second most astounding dive cascades in India.
The state has three chief topographical zones:
The beach front district of Karavali
The bumpy Malenadu district containing the Western Ghats
The Bayaluseeme district containing the fields of the Deccan level
The greater part of the state is in the Bayaluseeme district, the northern piece of which is the second-lar