Surat City Of Gujrat
Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It used to be a large seaport and is now a center for diamond cutting and polishing. It is the eighth largest city and ninth largest urban
agglomeration in India. It is the administrative capital of the Surat district. The city is located 284 kilometres (176 mi) south of the state capital, Gandhinagar; 265 kilometres (165 mi) south of
Ahmedabad; and 289 kilometres (180 mi) north of Mumbai. The city centre is located on the Tapti River, close to Arabian Sea.
Surat was the world’s 4th-fastest growing city in 2016 according to a study conducted by the City Mayors Foundation. The city registered an annualised GDP growth rate of 11.5% over the
seven fiscal years between 2001 and 2008. Surat was awarded “best city” by the Annual Survey of India’s City-Systems (ASICS) in 2013. Surat is selected as the first smart IT city in India which
is being constituted by the Microsoft CityNext Initiative tied up with IT services majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro.The city has 2.97 million internet users, about 65% of total
population.Surat was selected in 2015 for an IBM Smarter Cities Challenge grant. Surat has been selected as one of twenty Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra
Modi’s flagship Smart Cities Mission. In 2010, Surat was the 3rd “cleanest city of India” according to the Indian Ministry of Urban Development.
Surat, famous for its diamond cutting and polishing is known as the Diamond City of India.
Surat in 1877
Surat is believed[by whom?] to have been founded by a Brahmin named Gopi, who named the area Surajpur or Suryapur. In the 12th and 15th centuries, Surat was plundered by Muslims.In
1512 and again in 1530, Surat was ravaged by the Portuguese Empire. In 1514, the Portuguese traveler Duarte Barbosa described Surat as an important seaport, frequented by many ships
from Malabar and various parts of the world. By 1520, the name of the city had become Surat.
In 1573, Surat was conquered by the Mughals.It was the most prosperous port in the Mughal empire.Despite being a rich city, Surat looked like a typical “grubby” trader’s town with
mud-and-bamboo tenements and crooked streets, although along the riverfront there were a few mansions and warehouses belonging to local merchant princes and the establishments of
Turkish, Armenian, English, French and Dutch traders. There were also hospitals for cows, horses, flies and insects run by religious Jains, which puzzled travelers.Some streets were narrow
while others were of sufficient width. In the evening, especially near the Bazaar (marketplace), the streets became crowded with people and merchants (including Banyan merchants) selling
their goods. Surat was a populous city during the Mughal era but also had a large transient population: during the monsoon season, when ships could come and go from the ports without
danger, the city’s population would swell. In 1612, England established its first Indian trading factory in Surat.The city was sacked twice by the Maratha king Shivaji, with the first sacking
occurring in 1664. Shivaji’s raids scared trade away and caused ruin to the city.
Later, Surat became the emporium of India, exporting gold and cloth. Its major industries were shipbuilding and textile manufacture. The coast of the Tapti River, from Athwalines to Dumas,
was specially meant for shipbuilders, who were usually Rassis.The city continued to be prosperous until the rise of Bombay (present-day Mumbai). Afterwards, Surat’s shipbuilding industry
declined and Surat itself gradually declined throughout the 18th century.Between 1790-1, an epidemic killed 100,000 Gujaratis in Surat.The British and Dutch both claimed control of the
city, but in 1800, the British took control of Surat.
By the middle of the 19th century, Surat had become a stagnant city with about 80,000 inhabitants. When India’s railways opened, the city started becoming prosperous again. Silks, cottons,
brocades, and objects of gold and silver from Surat became famous and the ancient art of manufacturing fine muslin was revived.
Surat is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapi river. Damming of the Tapi caused the original port facilities to close; the nearest port is now in the Magadalla and Hazira area of Surat
Metropolitan Region. The city is located at 21°10′N 72°50′E. It has an average elevation of 13 meters. The Surat district is surrounded by the Bharuch, Narmada, Navsari, to the west is the
Gulf of Cambay and the surrounding districts. The climate is tropical and monsoon rainfall is abundant (about 2,500 mm a year). According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls
under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing vulnerability to earthquakes)
Surat has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen: Aw), moderated strongly by the Sea to the Gulf of Cambay. The summer begins in early March and lasts until June. April and May are the hottest
months, the average maximum temperature being 37 °C (99 °F). Monsoon begins in late June and the city receives about 1,200 millimetres (47 in) of rain by the end of September, with the
average maximum being 32 °C (90 °F) during those months. October and November see the retreat of the monsoon and a return of high temperatures until late November. Winter starts in
December and ends in late February, with average mean temperatures of around 23 °C (73 °F), and negligible rain.
Since the 20th century, Surat has experienced some 20 floods. In 1968, most parts of the city were flooded and in 1994 a flood caused a country-wide plague outbreak, Surat being the
epicenter. In 1998, 30 per cent of Surat had gone under water due to flooding in Tapti river following release of water from Ukai dam located 90 km from Surat and in Aug, 2006 more than 95
per cent of the city was under Tapti river waters, killing more than 120 people, stranding tens of thousands in their homes without food or electricity and closing businesses and schools for
Climate data for Surat, Gujarat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.3
Average high °C (°F) 30.8
Average low °C (°F) 15.2
Record low °C (°F) 4.4
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.5
Average rainy days 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 8.0 14.3 12.1 7.1 1.6 0.6 0.1 44.2
Average relative humidity (%) 57.5 56.0 55.1 62.9 71.8 79.0 86.2 86.4 82.3 70.2 62.0 61.3 69.2
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)
Source #2: Climatebase.ru (humidity)
Surat growth map
Metropolitan Surat economic centers and industries map
Surat ranked 10th in India with a GDP of 2.60 lakh crore in fiscal year 2016 ($14 billion in 2010). Surat GDP in 2020 will be around $57 billion estimated by The City Mayors Foundation, an
international think tank on urban affairs
Surat is a major hub of diamond cutting and polishing.The first diamond workshops in Gujarat appeared in Surat and Navasari in the late 1950s. The major group working in this industry is
people from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Because of demand in the American market from the early 1970s to the mid-1980s (with only a brief recession in 1979), Surat’s diamond
industry grew tremendously. Currently most of the diamond polishing workshops are running in the Varachha area of Surat, mostly by the people of the Patel community.
Surat’s Textile District Ring Road
Since it is known for producing textiles, including silk, Surat is known as the textile hub of the nation or the Silk City of India. It is very famous for its cotton mills and Surat Zari Craft. Surat is
the biggest centre of MMF (man-made fibre) in India. It has a total of 381 dyeing and printing mills and 41,100 powerloom units. There are over a hundred thousand units and mills in total.
The overall annual turnover is around 5 billion rupees. There are over 800 cloth wholesalers in Surat.It is the largest manufacturer of clothes in India, and Surti dress material can be found in
any state of India. Surat produces 9 million metres of fabric annually, which accounts for 60% of the total polyester cloth production in India. Now the city is focusing on increasing the
exports of its textile.
There are many SME Domestic IT Companies present in Surat. MNC IT companies like IBM,HCL have satellite or virtual branches in Surat. On 14 February 2014 Govt of Gujarat DST had
handover STPI Surat at Bhestan-Jiav Road, Bhestan Near Udhana-Sachin BRTS Route.
Surat city administration will demand for setting up of an Information Technology (IT) hub and an Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) on the outskirts of the city.
Microsoft CityNext initiative has tied up with IT services majors Tata Consultancy Services and Wipro to leverage technology for sustainable growth of cities in India. The first smart IT city in
India is being constituted by the Microsoft CityNext Initiative in Surat, Gujarat. In 2011 Surat hosted India’s first Microsoft DreamSpark Yatra (a tech event) with speakers from Microsoft
Headquarters at Redmond, Washington. The event was organised by Ex-Microsoft Student Partner Samarth Zankharia.
In May, 2015 Tech giant IBM has chosen Surat among 16 global locations for its smart cities programme to help them address challenges like waste management, disaster management and
citizen services. Under the programme, IBM will send a team of experts to each of the chosen cities where they will spend three weeks working closely with city staff analysing data about
critical issues faced by its local bodies;the co-operation continued into 2016.
Diamond Research And Mercantile City (DREAM)
Main article: Diamond Research and Mercantile City
The government of Gujarat plans another project near Surat similar to Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT). The Chief Minister has suggested that the government wishes to develop
DREAM to have a five-seven star hotel, bank, IT, corporate trading house, entertainment zone and other facilities while the Surat Diamond Bourse (SBD) will be based there. Allotment of
Khajod land for the project is convenient for the state government because they have 2,000 acres (810 ha) of available land. The Trade Centre, located near Sarsana village, will have a
100,160-square-metre (1,078,100 sq ft) pillar-less air-conditioned hall with a 90-by-35-metre (295 by 115 ft) pillar-less dome.
Built in 1860, Surat railway station falls under the administrative control of Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. In early 2016, the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation
rated the facility the best large station in India based on cleanliness.
The Sitilink or Surat BRTS is a bus rapid transit system in the city. It is operated by Surat Municipal Corporation and as of August 2017, had a network of 245 buses connecting major
Surat International Airport located in Magdalla, 11 kilometres (7 mi) southwest of Surat. It is the 2nd busiest airport in Gujarat in terms of both aircraft movements and passenger traffic.
Currently airlines such as Air India, Alliance Air, AirAsia India, SpiceJet, IndiGo Airlines, Air Odisha, Ventura AirConnect provide flight services from the Surat to various major cities like New
Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Goa, Jaipur. Air India Express is set to begin international flight on Surat Sharjah route very soon. Apart from main city, Surat Airport
also caters to various localities of south Gujarat including Navsari, Bardoli, Valsad, Bharuch, Ankleshwar.